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History of Mughal Empire in India:

Rule of Mughal Dynasty (1526-1858):

Babur:
(1526–1530)
1. Babur was the founder of Mughal dynasty in India.
2. He laid the foundation of Mughal dynasty by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526.
2. Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527.
3. He was a direct descendant of Taimur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother.
4. His real name was Ẓahir-ud-Din Muḥammad.
5. Babur wrote his memoirs Baburnama (Tuzuk-i-Baburi) in Turkish language.
6. He introduced gun powder in India.
Humayun:
(1530–1556)
1. Humayun was the eldest son of the Emperor Babur.
2. He became the second ruler of the Mughal empire after succeeding his father in 1530.
3. He ruled the country for 10 years but later in 1540 he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in the battle of Kannauj and was forced to leave India.
4. 12 years later in 1555 Humayun regain the throne by defeating Sikander Suri, the successor of Sher Shah Suri.
5. His half-sister Gulbadan Begum wrote his biography Humayun-nama.
6. Humayun was killed in an accidental fall from his library staircase in 1556.
7. Humayun's tomb was built in Delhi by Humayun's first wife Bega Begum in 1569. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993.
Akbar:
(1556–1605)
1. He was the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India.
2. He was coronoted when he was just 14 years old.
3. His able minister Bairam Khan helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal empire in India.
4. Bairam Khan represented Akbar in the second battle of Panipat in 1556 and defeated Hemu Vikramiditya.
5. Akbar built Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri to to commemorate his victory of Gujarat.
6. Akbar's forces headed by Raja Man Singh and Asaf Khan defeated Rana Pratap in the battle of Haldighati in 1576.
7. He built Ibadat Khana (House of Worship) at Fatehpur Sikri.
8. In 1581 Akbar promulgated the Din-i-Ilahi or Tauhid-i-Ilahi to establish national religion which would be acceptable to the Hindus and Muslims alike.
9. Raja Todarmal was the minister for revenue in the court of Akbar. Land revenue system prevalent during this period was known as Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti System.
10. He introduced the Mansabdari System for organizing the army and the nobles.
11. Akbar ruled the country for nearly 50 years and died in 1605 and was buried outside of Agra at Sikandra.
12. Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama, a biographical account of Akbar.
Jahangir:
(1605–1627)
1. His real name was Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim.
2. He was the fourth Emperor of Mughal dynasty who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
3. He was the eldest surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
4. The art of Mughal painting reached great heights under Jahangir's reign
5. In 1611, Jahangir married Mehr-un-Nisaa, the young widow of a Mughal officer, Sher Afgan. A beautiful, witty and strong woman, she soon became Jahangir's favorite queen and assumed the title of Nur Jahan, 'Light of the World'.
6. His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in 1622.
7. He executed the fifth of the ten Sikh gurus, Arjun Dev, for giving aid and comfort to Khusrau, Jahangir's rebellious son.
8. Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
Shahjahan:
(1628–1658)
1. He was the fifth Emperor of Mughal dynasty.
2. He was the son of Emperor Jahangir and his Hindu Rajput wife, Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani.
3. His rule is considered the Golden Age of the Mughal Empire.
4. He built Tajmahal and Moti Masjid at Agra, and Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi.
5. Other important buildings of Shah Jahan's rule were the Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas in the Red Fort Complex in Delhi
6. As he apparently lay dying in 1658 there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons (Dara, Aurangzeb, Shuja and Murad) but Aurangzeb came out victorious.
7. Aurangzeb put him under house arrest in Agra Fort for 8 years where he died at the age of 74.
Aurangzeb:
(1658–1707)
1. His full name was Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb.
2. He was the sixth Emperor of Mughal dynasty.
3. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
4. He was strictly adhered to Islam and made sure that his empire followed the same. He destroyed many Hindu temples and forced many non-Muslims to convert into Islam.
5. He spread the extent of Mughal Empire to the entire Indian sub continent barring the southernmost tip of India.
6. In 1675, he ordered the execution of ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur because of his objection to Aurangzeb's forced conversions.
7. He died in Ahmednagar in 1707 at the age of 88.
8. He was also known as Alamgir (Conquerer of the World).