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Types of Forest in India:

India possesses a variety of forests and natural vegetation which varies from region to region due to variations in climatic conditions, soil types and relief features. The country can be divided into five major vegetation regions which are:
(i) the tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests,
(ii) the tropical deciduous forests,
(iii) the dry thorn forests,
(iv) the tidal forests and
(v) the hill forests of the Himalayan regions.


Tropical Evergreen Forests:
These forests are found in regions of very high rainfall, usually over 200 centimetres per year, in a climate of high temperature and humidity. The trees grow very close to each other and never shed their leaves fully, hence are always green. The trees are lofty, reaching a height of 60 metres or even more. These types of forest are found at Western Ghats on altitute ranging from 500 to 1500 metres, and in the hill regions of the north-eastern part of India.
Semi-evergreen Forests:
These forests lie on the dry sides of the evergreen forests in Western Ghats, West Bengal, Odisha and other north-eastern region of India. These forests thrive in regions receiving about 200 centimetres of rainfall per year. The trees are hardwooded, and grow close to each other. Bamboo, ebony and rubber trees are important vegetations of this region.
Tropical Deciduous Forests:
These forests are also known as Monsoon forests. They are found in the regions that get 100 to 200 centimetres of rainfall per year. They extend from the Shiwalik ranges in the north to the eastern flanks of the Western Ghats in the peninsular India. The trees shed their leaves at the beginning of the summer season. Important trees of these forests are Teak, Sal, Sandalwood, Shisham and Mahua trees. These trees are hard and expensive and are used in making furniture and building materials.
Thorn Forests:
These forest are found in dry and arid regions which have annual rainfall of less than 80 centimetres. These forests are common in western Punjab, south-west Haryana, Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and parts of the Deccan Plateau. Important trees of these areas are Babul, Kikar, wild Palms and Cactus.
Tidal Forests:
These forests are found in those areas where the land is flooded by water i.e. they grow along the deltas of rivers which are subjected to tides, for example deltas of Ganga and Brahmaputra in West Bengal. The forest has been named Sunderban after the Sundari trees that grow here. These forests yield firewood and tanning material.
Forests of the Himalayan Region:
The forests and the type of vegetation in the Himalayan region differ with the differences in altitude. The outermost Himalayas or the Shiwalik are covered with the tropical moist deciduous forests vegetation of Teak, Sal and Rose wood trees. At the higher altitude are found the evergreen forests of Oak, Chestnut, Beech and Elm. At still higher altitudes ranging from 1,600 to 3,300 metres, are found the coniferous forests of Pine, Cedar, Silver fir and Spruce. At altitutde beyond 3,500 metres are found grasses and shrubs called the Alpine vegetation.